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There is no incongruity in the idea that in the very first period of human habitation of this world he made a friend and companion of some kind of native representative of our dog. modern, and that in return for helping protect him from more wild animals, and keeping his sheep and goats, he gave him some of his food, a corner in his house, and grew up to trust him and take care of it. Originally, the animal was probably nothing but an unusually sweet jackal, or a sick wolf led by his companions of the wild pack in marauding to seek refuge in a foreign environment. We can well understand the possibility that the partnership begins in the case of helpless little ones brought home by the first hunters to be cared for and brought up by women and children. Dogs brought into the home as children's toys would grow up to consider themselves and family members

In almost every part of the world, traces of a native dog family can be found, the only exceptions being the West Indian Islands, Madagascar, the eastern islands of the Malay Archipelago, New Zealand and the Polynesian Islands, where there is no sign that a dog, wolf, or fox existed as a true Aboriginal animal. In ancient eastern lands, and generally among the early Mongols, the dog remained wild and neglected for centuries, prowling in packs, gaunt and wolf-like, as it prowls the streets and under walls today. of all the eastern cities. No attempt has been made to attract him into human company or to improve him in docility. It is only when we come to examine the annals of the higher civilizations of Assyria and Egypt that we discover distinct varieties of canine form.

The dog was not very appreciated in Palestine, and in the Old and the New Testament, it is commonly called "impure beast" with contempt and contempt. Even the familiar reference to the sheepdog in the book of Job "But now those younger than me deride me, whose fathers I would have disdained to put the fathers with the dogs of my flock" is not without a suggestion of contempt, and it is significant that the only Biblical allusion to the dog as a recognized companion of man is found in the apocryphal book of Tobit (v. 16), "So they both went out, and the dog of the young man with them. "

The large multitude of different dog breeds and the large differences in size, point and general appearance are facts that make it difficult to believe that they could have had common ancestry. We think of the difference between the Mastiff and the Japanese Spaniel, the fashionable Deerhound and the Pomeranian, the Saint-Bernard and the Miniature Black and Tan Terrier, and is perplexed by considering the possibility that they descend from a progenitor common. Yet the disparity is no greater than that between the Shire horse and the Shetland pony, the Shorthorn and Kerry cattle, or between the Patagonian and the Pygmy; and all dog breeders know how easy it is to produce a variety of type and size by careful selection.

In order to fully understand this question, we must first consider the identity of the structure in wolves and dogs. This structural identity can be best studied by comparing the bone systems, or skeletons, of the two animals, which resemble each other so closely that their transposition would not be easily detected.

The dog's spine consists of seven vertebrae in the neck, thirteen in the back, seven in the kidneys, three sacral vertebrae, and twenty to twenty-two in the tail. In dogs and wolves, there are thirteen pairs of ribs, nine true and four false. Each has forty-two teeth. They both have five front toes and four rear toes, while on the outside, the common wolf has so much the appearance of a large bare-bone dog, that a popular description of one would be used for the 'other.

Their habits are not different either. The wolf's natural voice is a loud howl, but when it is confined with dogs, it will learn to bark. Although it is carnivorous, it also eats vegetables, and when sick, it nibbles on grass. In the pursuit, a pack of wolves will split into groups, one following the career trail, the other striving to intercept its retreat, exercising a considerable amount of strategy, a trait that is exhibited by many. our sport dogs and terriers when hunting as a team.

Another important point of resemblance between Canis lupus and Canis familiaris is that the gestation period of both species is sixty-three days. There are three to nine cubs in a wolf's litter, and they are blind for twenty-one days. They are breastfed for two months, but at the end of this period, they are able to eat half-digested flesh disgorged for them by their mother or even their father.

Dogs native to all regions closely approximate in size, coloration, shape, and habit to the wolf native to those regions. Of this most important circumstance, there are far too many examples to allow it to be considered a mere coincidence. Sir John Richardson, writing in 1829, observed that “the resemblance between North American wolves and the Indian domestic dog is so great that the size and strength of the wolf seems to be the only difference.

It has been suggested that the only compelling argument against the dog's lupine relationship is the fact that all domestic dogs bark, while all wild canids only express their feelings through howls. But the difficulty here is not as great as it seems, as we know that jackals, wild dogs and wolves raised by bitches easily acquire the habit. In contrast, domestic dogs allowed to run in the wild forget to bark, while some have not yet learned to express themselves.

The presence or absence of the habit of barking cannot therefore be considered as an argument to settle the question of the origin of the dog. This stumbling block therefore disappears, leaving us in the position to agree with Darwin, whose final hypothesis was that "it is highly probable that the domestic dogs of the world descend from two good species of wolves ( C. lupus and C. latrans), and two or three other questionable wolf species, namely the European, Indian and North African forms; at least one or two canine species from South America; of several races or species of jackal; and perhaps of one or more extinct species "; and that the blood of these, in some cases mixed, flows through the veins of our domestic races.

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